Skirmish '90 Modern Wargames Rules 1915-2005

- Aaron Longbottom (1989)



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Skirmish '90 -- Introduction

These rules are designed to deal with small unit actions between 1915 and 1995. They are aimed at Platoon or company level with limited air and armour support. Although originally developed to cover many of the low intensity ``Bush Wars" since 1945 it is hoped that they can now be used for most other conflicts of the twentieth century (and beyond).

The rules are based on ideas from many other sets of WW2/Modern wargames rules including Firefight (Bruce Rea-Taylor), Bodycount (Arclight products), Challenger (Bruce Rea-Taylor) as well as articles from Miniature Wargames, Wargames Illustrated and The Jounal.

One of the major differences of these rules is the non-linear ground scale, which varies from 1:400 at short distances to 1:2000 at the maximum envisaged distance. The effect of this is to accsentuate the role of smallarms & other infantry weapons, out to a range of 300m or so, while still allowing the use of most supporting arms, if at slightly decreased effectiveness.

Turns are simultaneous and in general the order set out in the Bound (below) should be followed. The idea behind the Reaction rolls is to make the unit leaders the centre of the game. It will soon be realised that a unit must have good motivation and constant attention from its commanders to operate effectively.

If an umpire is present then hidden movement/back to back game can be used. For these cases a result of 6 on the spotting dice will result in the observing unit spotting something even if there is nothing there. It is this situation and the tactic of ``recconaissance by fire" that the rule for firing at areas of cover (equivalent to unaimed fire) is included (It should be noted that light support weapons have a -3 DM to hit when firing at an unseen enemy).

Over the years I have continually modified these rules and players are encouraged to continue to do so. The tables at the end for example are based only on my own opinion, and so to some extent these will be coloured by my prejudices and interests. I would be interested in any comments/criticisms/modifications. Feel free to e-mail me and most of all, enjoy!

- Aaron Longbottom 1989. (e-mail aaron@mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk)

(Postscipt and LaTeX versions of this file are available, e-mail me at the above address.)

If you wish to fight pure infantry actions I would recomend either Firefight or one of the many modern role-playing games (e.g. Recon), while for those who want larger scale battles Command Decision is one of my favourites.

For those of you with some interest in ths period of history (especially those in the U.K.) I can recommend joining ``The Society of Twentieth Century Wargamers". This is a non-profit-making society run by wargamers for wargamers. For which you get four copies of The Journal a year packed with reviews, articles, scenarios, rules letters and traders comments. Also discounts off most major manufacturers, special offers & exclusive models only available to society members, second hand book and model exchange service. I can send further info via e-mail or contact:

Mark Wheeler (Treasurer, SOTCW),
25 Buttermere,
White Court, Black Notley, Essex,
CM7 8UY, UNITED KINGDOM.
Phone: +44 376-330567 (Daytime UK only)

Scales

One turn = 5 minutes, One figure/model = one man/vehicle

Real          10m  20m  40m  60m  100m  150m  200m  300m  600m
Game           2"   4"   8"  10"   20"   25"   30"   40"   60"

Real (km)     1.0  1.5  2.0  2.5   3.0  4.0   5.0   6.0
Game (approx)  5'   6'  6'8" 7'6"   8'   9'   9'6"  10' 

Bound

This is the general order in which the move should take place. Within each section of the bound action takes place simultaneously.

Communication (D10)

Radio contact 3+

DM's: -4 WWII Field radio                 -1 Artil. impact within 15"
      -2 WWII Vehicle radio               -2 Artil. impact within 9"
      -1 Old type (PRC-10, PRR-2, URC-68) -2 Operator under fire
      +1 New type (PRC-77)                -1 5+ smallarms or any M.G. firing within 9"
      -3 Crawling                         -1 Raining
      -5 Advancing                        -2 Storm
      -7 Running

Reaction (D6)

To:                   Need  Max. Mot. if pass  (DM's):
Move back              2+          0            + motivation level
Unaimed Fire/Set up    3+          1            + L.P.s of ONE leader
Crawl                  4+          1            +1 Light Spt. fire (G.L./L.M.G.)
Aimed Fire/Advance     5+          2            +2 Heavy Spt. fire (R.R./H.M.G.)
To contact             6+          2            +/- Umpires discretion
Changes to motivation:

If fail             -1             +/- Umpires discretion
If succeed          +1
Advance to contact  +1 (extra)     Max. Motivation +2
If casualty this go -1             Min. Motivation -2
If C.O. is casualty -1 (extra)
If Pinned down      -1

Spotting Units (D6)

            Max.            MOVING                FIRING  (1st/2nd+ shots)
Target in   range  still crawl advan. run    smallarms L.M.G. R.R./H.M.G./e.t.c.
  Open      (60")    5+    4+    1+   auto     4+/2+   3+/1+      2+/auto
  Light     (24")    6+    6+    4+    2+      6+/4+   5+/3+      3+/2+
  Close     (12")    7+    6+    5+    3+      8+/6+   7+/5+      5+/3+
  Dense     (6")     8+    7+    6+    4+      no/8+   no/7+      7+/5+

(DM's) YOU: pinned -2  Closed down -1      (DM's) YOU: pinned -2  Closed down -1
            Advan. -1  Running     -2                  Advan. -1  Running     -2
       +F.C.R. difference                         TGT: A.T.G.W. backflash     +1
Vehicles count as running (Double ranges) small +1, medium +2, large +3. For aircraft, count as running and take cover type that observer is in.

Fully developed smoke - down two lines. Partially developed smoke - down one line. At night all use Dense line. (+1 for Firing, can see flashes better.)

Movement

Infantry                crawl  advance run 
track/open                4"     10"   18" 
light/paddy               2"      8"   12" 
close/dense               2"      6"   10"  
Possible to spot traps?  yes     yes   no  

Modifiers: 
-1" prone to erect
-1/2" for each of: (carrying Hvy. pack, large L.M.G., Lt. mort., 
                    ammo belts, shells,L.A.W., or wearing Flak-jacket.)
-1" for each of:   (carrying 60mm mort.,R.R., A.T.G.W., S.F.M.G., M.M.G.,
                    carrying wounded by self or crippled man between 2.)
-2" for each of:   (carrying H.M.G.,81-120mm mort., crippled man alone.)
Vehicles        road  open  light  close  dense  swim
Light track      30"   20"   20"    12"     6"    10"
Medium track     26"   18"   18"    10"     4"    12"
Heavy track      22"   14"   14"     9"     2"     6"
Fast Wheeled     34"   22"   14"     6"     -     12"
Slow wheeled     30"   15"   10"     -      -      6"
Dog/Horse        22"   22"   11"     8"     6"     6"
Domestic animal   8"    8"    4"     4"     4"     2"

Aimed Smallarms Fire at a visible target (D10)

May fire single shot at specific target (use number after `/')
or automatic at a target area 2" wide X 4" deep (use number before `/').
For Single shots must roll No+ to hit. For auto fire get D10-No hits, 1/2 fall on target, 1/2 on others in area.
Tgt: muzzle flash             -3   Firer: pinned                   -1
     prone                    -2          wounded ({\em optional}) -1
     running                  -1          advancing                -1
     Lt./Close cover/1/2 vis. -1          running                  -2
     Smk./walls/Dense cover   -2          rested weapon/bipod      +1
     Bunker                   -3   Has Target: & using scope       +1
     Night (no moon)          -2               & using Laser       +2
     Night (with moon)        -1               + Ability
If you roll 1-2 (single shot) or 1-6 (auto fire) there is a chance of a misfire:
Weapon (D10)  O.K.  Dud  Out of Ammo  Jams
Pistol         1    2-4     5-8       9-10    O.K.         - fires as normal
Revolver       1    2-4     5-9        10     Dud(misfire) - lose one `hit'
S.M.G.         1    2-3     4-7       8-10    Out of Ammo  - fires o.k. but must 
Auto-rifle     1    2-3     4-8       9-10                   reload this go
Other rifle    1     2      3-9        10     Jams         - doesn't fire takes 
Box M.G.       1     2      3-9        10                    next go to clear
Belt M.G.      1    2-3     4-8       9-10
For each hit roll D10-str.:
less than 4 pinned     DM's: aimed single shot     +2 confined space (blast only) +2
4,5,6       wounded          Dum-Dum bullet        +1 Standard flak-jacket        -2
 7,8        crippled         fired at muzzle flash -2 Hvy. duty flak-jacket       -2
  9+        killed
pinned no moving + other DM's.
wounded crawl only (# optional), -1 DM to firing (* optional). 2 x wounded = crippled.
crippled no moving or firing. 2 x crippled = killed.
Optional: (D6)  1. scratch  2,3. body/leg  4,5. arm (* firing DM,   6. head
                 (down No)  (#crawl only)  D6 = 6 weapon destroied)  (up No)
Penetration of rounds:

If the target is protected by cover the following may be deducted in addition to str. to get the type of wound:

Wood/bamboo/brush fence   -2  Log wall            (/log thick) -5
Brick wall (/brick thick) -3  Concrete            (/6" thick)  -6
Sandbag    (/bag)         -4  Reinforced concrete (/6" thick) -10
Earth bank (/foot thick)  -4

Unaimed Smallarms/Area fire (D6)

Unaimed fire at areas of cover and enemy. Roll once per group of 4 smallarms and for each Machine gun.
Weapon    Pistol  S.M.G./S.G./  Autorifle    L.M.G    Carbine  Rifle   S.F.M.G./
Max.  Die          Flechette              Small Large                M.M.G./H.M.G.
range roll  6"         12"         24"     30"   40"     24"    30"       60"
         1  -           -           -       -     -       -      -         -
         2  -           -           -       -     -       -      -         P
Open/    3  -           -           P       P     P       P      P        P1
Light    4  -           P           P       P     P1      P      P        P2
cover    5  -           P1          P1      P1    P1      P      P        P2
         6  P           P2          P2      P2    P2      P1     P1       P3
         1  -           -           -       -     -       -      -        -
Close/   2  -           -           -       -     -       -      -        -
Dense    3  -           -           -       -     P       -      -        P
cover    4  -           -           P       P     P       P      -        P1
Crawling 5  -           P           P       P     P       P      P        P1
         6  P           P           P1      P1    P1      P1     P1       P2
         1  -           -           -       -     -       -      -        -
         2  -           -           -       -     -       -      -        -
Heavy    3  -           -           -       -     -       -      -        -
cover    4  -           -           -       P     P       -      -        P
         5  -           -           P       P     P       P      -        P
         6  -           P           P       P     P       P      P        P1
Strength   -4          -4          -3      -2    -2      -3     -2       -2
If missing crew member treat large L.M.G. as Small.
If roll is 1 or 2 chance of a misfire (see above).

P = Pinned, No = number of wounded (roll on casualty table, see above)

(DM's):  -1 less than 4 smallarms in group
         -1 per missing crew member of S.F.M.G./M.M.G./H.M.G

Light support weapons (D10)

                                                          H.E.      Other (see below)
Weapon         2" 4" 8" 10" 15" 20" 25" 30" 40" 60" Rad.  Hits Str. Rad.  Hits   Str.
Off. Gren.     4  6  8   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   2"    D6   -2   2"   D6-1   -1*
Def. Gren.     4  6  9   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   3"  2D6-1  -1   2"    D6     0*
Rifle Gren.    -  8  8   9  10  11   -   -   -   -   3"  1/2D6  -2   2" 1/2D6-1  -1*
A.T. version   -  8  9  10  11  12   -   -   -   -   -     -     -   1"  1/2D6   +4
Molotov        -  8 10   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -     -     -   1"  2D6-1   -2*
A.T. Gren.     -  8 10   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -     -     -   1"   D6-1   +2
SPG-9/2A2B     -  6  6   6   7   7   8   9  10  12   3"   2D6   -1   1"    D6    +6
M203/BG15      -  -  6   7   8   9  10  12   -   -   2"   D6-1  -2   1"  1/2D6   +1
M79            -  -  6   7   8   9  10  11  12   -   2"   D6-1  -2   1"  1/2D6   +1
AGS 17 30mm    -  -  7   7   8   8   9  10  11  12   2"  1/2D6  -2   1"  1/2D6   +1
 (PLAMYA)
M174 40mm      -  -  7   8   9  10  11  11  12  12   2"  1/2D6  -2   1"  1/2D6   +1
XM12 20mm      -  -  7   7   7   8   9  10  11  12   1" 1/2D6-1 -3   1"    5+    +1
Satchel charge 4  -  -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   2"  3D6-2  +5   -     -      -
Hand mortar    -  - 10  10  10  11  12   -   -   -   3"    D6   -2   -     -      -
Flame throwers:
   Manpacked   7  7  7   -   -   -   -   -   -   -     Area 2"x4"
   Vehicle     7  7  7   7   -   -   -   -   -   -      3D6 hits
   M202        -  6  7   8   9  10  12  12   -   -      Str. -3 
* W.P. Round, otherwise H.E.A.T. round.
(DM's):  to get range                                             (DM's): to No hits
Tgt: muzzle flash/unseen      -3   Firer: pinned             -1   Tgt. prone   -1
     prone                    -2          wounded (optional) -1
     running                  -1          advancing          -1   per 5m       -1
     Lt./Close cover/1/2 vis. -1          running            -2   height diff.
     Smk./walls/Dense cover   -2  Throwing gren.& prone      -2
     Bunker                   -3  Has Target:         + Ability
     Night (no moon)          -2  Night (with moon)          -1
HITS ARE SHARED EQUALLY BETWEEN THOSE WITHIN RADIUS. MAXIMUM OF 4/FIGURE.

If fail to hit throw on table:

Hand grenade/G.L. up to 4" D10             12  8  4  6 14 17 20 
Hand grenade/G.L. over 4"  D20         3"   9  1  X  2 10 15 18  ---> TO FIRER
Satchel charge             D10-2           11  7  3  5 13 16 19
                                                     7"
Missfire: on role of, 1. H.E./W.P., 1,2. H.E.A.T./Flame

D10 1-4   Possible Accident/O.K.
    5-10  Dud: H.E./W.P. fail to explode H.E.A.T half effect
    (DM) +1 If home made
Flame: 1-4 O.K., 5-8 Fails to ignite, 9-10 Jams.

Accidents: (for hand grenade only) may fumble & drop on roll of:

Ability  0   1    2   3   4
D20     Yes 1-16 1-8 1-4 1-2

Close combat (D6)

                                              (Defenders)
                 CHARGE    FAIL TO         FIRE          FAIL TO   MOVE BACK    FAIL TO
(Attackers)                CHARGE                          FIRE                 MOVE BACK
              Both fire   Attackers      Defenders      Attackers   Attackers   Defenders
              at 2".      fire at 2". fire first at 2". fire at 2".   take      surrender
CHARGE        Both melee. Both melee.   Attackers       Both melee  position 
                                        fire at 2".
                                        Both melee.

FAIL TO       Defenders    Nothing      Defenders         Nothing   Defenders    Nothing
CHARGE        fire at 2"   happens        fire            happens   evacuate     happens
                                        normally                    position
NOTES: All firing is at unseen enemy & takes place before melee. After firing both must test AGGRESSION (below) before melee.

Testing Aggression (D6):

Before each melee round. Must be able to FIRE on reaction table to continue

-- Will surrender if you fail.

-- If both fail one with most casulalties MUST withdraw.

Melee (D10): Attacker roll D10

DM's
     Ability  0  1  2  3  4      +1/-1 defender/attacker is wounded
     DM      -2 -1  0 +1 +2      +2/-2 defender/attacker is prone or lower
     +3 to rear of defender      +2/-2 defender/attacker is pinned
     +1 per additional attacker  +1/-1 attacker/defender has knife or bayonet
Result:           Attacker                 Defender
Total     <2    2     3    4-5  6-7  8-9   10    11   12+
Result   Kill Crip. Wound  Pin. O.K. Pin. Wound Crip. Kill

Mines and Booby-traps (D10)

The area to be played over is split up into zones, each of which is given a risk factor:

minimal 10+
low 9+
medium 8+
high 7+
maximum 6+
(DM) Not in file single file +1

These are a measure, on a D10, of the chance of a squad sized unit encountering a mine or booby-trap. When this happens a previously prepared card is consulted to see what, if anything, there is. Individual mines may be marked.

Detection (D20):

Roll D20 for each 4" moved, may see none, some or all traps.

                     Track/Light  Close  Dense  Paddy/River
Pits                     10+       12+    14+       16+
Concealed spikes         12+       14+    16+       18+
Tripwire - concealed     14+       16+    18+       20+
 - hastily laid           8+       10+    14+       16+
Buried mine - visual      9+       11+    15+       19+
 - mine detector          6+        6+     6+        -
Scattermine - visual      7+        9+    14+       18+
 - mine detector          6+        6+     6+        -
Boobytrap                14+       16+    18+       20+
Traps                    11+       13+    15+       17+
Tripwires: Hastily laid in one bound OR set in three bounda. May be attached to grenades, satchel charge, flares, shotguns, A.T. Wpn. e.t.c. 3+ to trigger.

Mines:Set before game starts. Either Anti-personnel (also set of by A.F.V.s) or Anit-Tank (1/2 chance to be triggered by animals, no chance for men). 7+ to trigger lone mine, Field of mines set with a density of between 5+ and 9+/inch to trigger.

Toe poppers: Bullet set in ground to fire upwards. 7+ to trigger.

Pits & Traps: 2+ to step/fall in.

NOTES:

Claymores take 2 bounds to set + one bound to lay 4" firing wire. Roll D6+Ability: 1-5 = low, 5,6 = high, 7+ O.K.

Effect (D6)         Radius    Hits  Str     Notes
Toe-popper            -        1     0  Treat killed as crippled.
Spiked pit            -        1    -2  Treat killed as crippled unless mantrap.
Swinging spikes       -        1    -3
Spiked boards         -        1    -4  Last three may be poisoned.
Large animal trap     -        1    -5
Small animal trap     -        1    -6
Small A.P. mine       1"     1/2D6  -2
Large A.P. mine     1 1/2      D6    0
Bouncing Betty        2"       D6   -1  To hear mine arm (D10) 5+ (DM's as spot).
A.T. mine             2"      D6+1  +1  SEE BELOW
Claymore type    60deg to 6"  3D6   +1  -2" to ranges if
                 cont. to 11" 2D6   -1  Russian or Chinese.
(set low)        60deg to 4"  2D6   +1  -1" to ranges if
                 cont. to 8"   D6   -1  Russian or Chinese.
(set high)       60deg to 5"  2D6    0  -1" to ranges if Russian or Chinese.
                 cont. to 9"   D6   -2  Only standing figures
Gren, Bow, Shotgun: Treat as normal (Unseen enemy).
A.T. mines: Pen. 1 to A.F.V. (2 to the vehicle that set it off) attacks bottom armour.

HITS ARE SHARED EQUALLY BETWEEN THOSE WITHIN RADIUS. MAXIMUM OF 4/FIGURE.

Alertness & Silencers

Given spotting (DM) of: -1 if on sentry duty, -2 if off duty but awake. Until spotted enemy or alerted by comrade.
If firing silenced weapon or bow at greater than 3" OR knife at any range (DM}) -1 for spotting that weapon.
In melee ({\em DM}) +2 if attacking unalerted soldier.
When using throwing knife or Bow add to casualty roll:
Ability  0  1  2  3  4
(DM)    -2 -1  0 +1 +2

Artillery & Mortar support (D20)

May Fire number of ranging shots equal to observers ability (Abil. 0 = 1 shot). Roll two dice, one for over/under, one for left right. Deviation given in inches.
Ranging       Artillery          Mortar    Guns H.E.
(D20)     Long       Short                  Direct
  1       8   19      4   13      6   8      6    5  DM's +/- No to D20
  2       6   15      3   11      4   5      5    3  
  3     L 5 U 13    L 2 U  8    L 3 U 4    L 4 U  3  Ability  0  1  2  3  4
  4     E 4 N 11    E 2 N  7    E 3 N 3    E 3 N  2  shot 2   -  -  1  1  1
  5     F 3 D  9    F 1 D  6    F 2 D 3    F 2 D  2       3   -  1  1  2  2
  6     T 3 E  8    T 1 E  5    T 2 E 2    T 2 E  1       4   1  1  2  2  3
  7       2 R  6      1 R  4      1 R 2      1 R  1       5   1  2  2  3  4
  8       1    4      1    3      1   1      1    1       6   1  2  3  4  5
  9       1    2      1    2      1   1      1    1       7   1  2  4  5  6
10,11     HIT         HIT         HIT        HIT              e.t.c.
 12       1    2      1    2      1   1      1    2   Half all these DM's 
 13       1    4      1    3      1   1      1    4   (round down) for WWII
 14     R 2 O  6    R 1 O  4    R 1 O 2    R 1 O  5   games.
 15     I 3 V  8    I 1 V  5    I 2 V 2    I 2 V  7
 16     G 3 E  9    G 1 E  6    G 2 E 3    G 2 E  8
 17     H 4 R 11    H 2 R  7    H 3 R 3    H 3 R  9
 18     T 5   13    T 2    8    T 3   4    T 4   12
 19       6   15      3   11      4   5      5   13
 20       8   19      4   13      6   8      6   17
Effect of ranging & single shots (D6)
  Weapons            H.E.               W.P.             H.E.A.T.
(single shots) Rad.  Hits  Str.   Rad.  Hits  Str.   Rad.  Hits  Str.
50/51mm mort.   2"    6+    -1     -     -     -      -     -     -
35-57mm guns
60mm mort.      3"    5+    -1     2"    6+    +1     1"    5+    +6
73mm guns
81/82mm mort.   4"   D6-1    0     4"    5+    +1     1"   D6-1   +5
75-90mm guns
107/120mm mort. 5"    D6     0     4"   D6-1   +2     1"   D6+1   +7
100-125mm guns
160/240mm mort. 5"   D6+1   +1     4"    D6    +2     1"  2D6-1   +7
105/122mm How. 
152/155mm How.  6"  2D6-1   +1     5"   D6+1   +2     1"   2D6    +8
175mm+ How.     7"   2D6    +1     5"  2D6-1   +2     -     -     -
(DM's): to No hits: tgt. prone -1, per 5m -1

HITS ARE SHARED EQUALLY BETWEEN THOSE WITHIN RADIUS. MAXIMUM OF 4/FIGURE.

Effect of barrages (D6):

                                       Guns x minutes                          Area hit  
  Weapons       Ammo 1  2    3       4     5       10    15      20   30   60  4/6 guns
50/51mm mort.   H.E. -  6+   6+      6+    6+      5+  1/2D6   1/2D6  D6   2D6  8/ 8x10
35-57mm guns
60mm mort.      H.E. -  6+   6+      6+    6+      5+  1/2D6   1/2D6  D6   2D6 10/10x12
73mm gun        W.P. -  -    -       6+    6+      5+  1/2D6-1 1/2D6 D6-1  2D6  6/ 6x8
81/82mm mort.   H.E. 6+ 6+   6+      6+    6+      5+  1/2D6   1/2D6 D6    2D6 10/10x12
75-90mm guns    W.P. -  -    -       6+    6+      5+  1/2D6-1 1/2D6 D6-1  2D6  8/ 8x10
107/120mm mort. H.E. 6+ 6+   5+      5+  1/2D6-1 1/2D6   D6    2D6-1 2D6+1 3D6 12/12x15
100-125mm guns  W.P. -  6+   6+      5+    5+    1/2D6   D6     D6+1 2D6   3D6 10/10x12
160/240mm mort. H.E. 6+ 5+ 1/2D6-1 1/2D6  1/2D6   D6+1   2D6   3D6-1 3D6   3D6 12/12x15
105/122mm How.  W.P. 6+ 6+   5+   1/2D6-1 1/2D6    D6    2D6   2D6+1 3D6-1 3D6 10/10x12
152/155 How.    H.E. 6+ 5+  1/2D6  1/2D6   D6     2D6   3D6-1   3D6  3D6   3D6 14/14x18
                W.P. 6+ 5+ 1/2D6-1 1/2D6  D6-1    2D6   2D6+1  3D6-1 3D6   3D6 12/12x15
175mm+ How.     H.E. 6+ 5+  1/2D6  1/2D6   D6     2D6   3D6-1   3D6  3D6   3D6 15/15x20
                W.P. 6+ 5+ 1/2D6-1 1/2D6  D6-1    2D6   2D6+1  3D6-1 3D6   3D6 12/12x15
Notes: For 4 gun battery area is No before / square in inches. For 6 gun battery area is No after / rectangle in inches.

(DM's) Target NOT prone +2, Str.s as above.

Fires (D20)

Only burnable terrain. H.E. round/grenade with in 1" 19+
Incendiary/flame/W.P.over all area 14+
(DM's): Weather very dry +3, Inside building +2, Weather wet -3

Smoke

Dischargers fire 8" in direction that they are pointing (in pairs). 6+ to hit, if miss dice as grenade.
Hand grenade/Shells(H.E. & W.P.)  2" diam. or 1/2 area, lasts one bound.
Smoke grenade/Discharger/shell    2" diam. or area. Spreads 4" down wind on 
& vehicle fires*                  second bound. Lasts two bounds.
Smoke generator                   1" by 6", spreads to 12" down wind if
                                  continued (taken from vehicles last
                                  position). Only partial screen 1/2 all DM's.
                                  Lasts only one turn unless continued.
Terrain fire*                     2" diam. Lasts until burnt out.
* To burn out (D20) 20+ first turn.

(DM's) +1 per turn passed, +2 per turn trying to put out fire

If no wind screens are not lengthened. If high wind 1/2 time smoke lasts.

Electronics & Night fighting

At night all use Dense line for visibility, Close line if within illum. radius.
Illum. gren/flare pistol       9" diam.
Mort. to 60mm/Shell to 90mm   15" diam.
Mort. 60mm+/Shell 90mm+       20" diam.

Thermal Imagers         Negate night, mist & fog. Rain & snow still in effect.
Infra-red Night Sights  (DM) +1 in poor visibility. May be detected by passive &
                        I.R. detectors (DM) +1. Burn out if within flare range.
Passive Night Sights    As I.R. night sights but cannot be detected. Early 
                        versions may burn out within flare range.
Surveillance Radar      Only for area fire. As Open but (DM) -1, has 6" dead zone.
Acoustic Detectors      Moving men & vehicles as Open (DM) -3
I.R. & other beams      Detect all crossing.
T.V. Monitors           As normal but may have I.R. or Passive sensor. Operator 
                        has alertness -1 & counts as closed down.
Electronic Detectors    To detect radars/beams/scanning devices (D10) 3+, Radar 
                        any where. Others less than 6".

A.F.V. & A.T. fire (D10)

Infantry A.T.      4"  8" 10" 15" 20" 25" 30" 40" 60" 80" 100" 120" HEAT
L.A.D. A*          4   5   6   7   8  10  10   -   -   -    -    -    5
L.A.D. B*          4   4   5   6   7   8   9  10   -   -    -    -    5
R.C.L. to 90mm     4   4   5   6   6   7   8   9  10   -    -    -    4
R.C.L. 90-120mm    4   4   4   5   5   5   6   7   9   -    -    -    6
P.I.A.T.           4   7   9  10   -   -   -   -   -   -    -    -    3
Pz Faust           4   7   8  10   -   -   -   -   -   -    -    -    4
Pz Schreck         4   6   7   9  10   -   -   -   -   -    -    -    4
RPG2, Type56,      4   6   7   9  10   -   -   -   -   -    -    -    4
SAR-PAC, Pzf44
Baz M20, Pzf44n    4   5   5   6   7   9  10   -   -   -    -    -    5
M57, RBR80, C90    4   5   6   7   9  10   -   -   -   -    -    -    6
RPG7, Type69       -   4   6   7  10   -   -   -   -   -    -    -    5
RPG16              -   4   6   7   8  10   -   -   -   -    -    -    8
ACIP300            -   4   5   5   5   5   8   9   -   -    -    -    8
C.Gustav M2,       4   4   5   5   6   6   8  10   -   -    -    -    7
S550
M67, Folgore       4   5   5   6   6   7   7   9   -   -    -    -    6
RL83, RL100,       4   4   5   5   6   7   8   9   -   -    -    -    6
LRAC, STRIM
Missile A          -   -   -   -   -   9   8   8   6   5    6    -    8
Missile B          -   9   9   8   8   8   7   6   5   5    5    6   10
* L.A.D. A: RPG18,Type 74,M72,Miniman.
* L.A.D. B: Viper,AT4, L.A.W. 80, Armburst, Picket.
A.T. Guns  4"  8" 10" 15" 20" 25" AP 30" 40" 60" AP 80" AP 100" AP HEAT
20-25mmA   4   4   4   4   4   5  2   5   5   6  1   -  -    -  -   -
30-40mmA   3   3   4   4   4   4  3   4   4   9  2   -  -    -  -   -
57-80mm    4   4   4   4   4   4  5   5   5   5  4   8  3    -  -   5
81-100mm   4   4   4   4   4   4  6   4   5   5  6   7  5    9  3   6
105-125mm  3   3   3   3   3   3  7   3   4   4  7   6  6    8  5   7
M81 152mm  4   4   4   5   5   6  -   6   7   8  -   -  -    -  -   8
M135 165mm 3   4   4   4   5   6  -   8   9   -  -   -  -    -  -   8
(DM's) FIRER: Ability 0              -2  Tgt: small                    +1
              Ability 1              -1       medium                   +2
              Ability 3              +1       large                    +3
              Ability 4              +2       Moved 3-6"               -1
       2nd+ shot                     +2       Moved 6-9"               -2
       Suppresses/closed-down        -1       Moved 9-12"              -3
       Obscured by smoke/close/dense -2       Moved 12"+               -4
       Moved & Stabilised            +1  Other: To hit specific point  -4
       Moved 0-3"                    -1         Night                  -1
       Moved 3-6"                    -2         25-40mm or R.R. firing +1
       Moved 6"+                     -2         Automatically
Once a hit is obtained see where it is:
D10    front/rear side
TRACK      1-2     1-3
HULL       3-7     4-7
TURRET    8-10    8-10
Penetration:
If Weapons Pen./Str. value equals armour class then (D6) 4,5,6 has penetrated. If weapons Pen./Str. value is greater than armour class then it has made a number of penetrations equal to the difference. A/T. fire against troops
Weapon   RCL to 90mm  RCL to 120mm  LAD A & B  LAW's  Missile A & B
 Rad.        2"           2"            1"      1"         2"
 Hits        D6          2D6           2D6     2D-1       3D6-1
 Str.        +4           +6            +6      +6         +9
Armour Classes:
Type of vehicle      Front  Side  Rear  Bottom/Top/Track Special Armour:
A.P.C.,A/c,Lt.         1     1     1           1          vs H.E.A.T. rounds
Lt.Spt. Vehicle                                          Spaced            x1 1/2
M.I.C.V.,Lt.Spt.tank   2     1     1           1         Chobham/Laminated x2
Light tanks            3     2     1           1         Active (D6)
Medium tanks           4     2     2           1                     1 No change
Heavy tank             5     2     2           1                    2-4 x1 1/2
Modern tank            6     3     2           2                    5,6 x2
Internal Hits: Roll D20 or D10 & keep reading down column until out of hits.
Dice  Front hull  Side/Top/Bottom hull  Rear hull  Turret
  1     engine           crew           passenger   gun
  2     engine          engine          passenger   crew
  3     engine           crew           passenger   gun
  4      crew            crew           passenger laser R.F.
  5      crew            crew           passenger   crew
  6      crew            crew           passenger   gun
  7      crew            gun             engine   auto l./crew
  8      gun           passenger         engine   s. disch.
  9      gun           passenger         engine     ammo
 10      crew            ammo             ammo     radio
 11      crew             -               ammo       -
 12      crew             -             s. disch.    -
 13      ammo             -               radio      -
 14      ammo             -               crew       -
 15    s. disch.          -               gun        -
 16     radio             -               crew       -
 17     engine            -               crew       -
 18     engine            -               crew       -
 19    passenger          -              engine      -
 20    passenger          -               crew       -
If hit inoperative:

GUN Dice for which.
CREW/PASSENGER Dice for which (str. -3).
AMMO explodes on (D10):
A.P.C.,A/C,Modern M.B.T. 10+
Lt. Tank, Chinese M.B.T./T72 8+
Other M.B.T. 9+
(NO ESCAPE)
ENGINE Roll D10: 1-5 1/2 move, 6-10 Stops
Catches fire on same roll if:
A.P.C.,A/C 7+
M.B.T. e.t.c. 6+
(MAY STILL BAIL OUT)

Non penetrating rounds (Roll once only on above)

GUN Dice for which: If main gun traverse jammed. Outer M.G. destroyed.
CREW/PASSENGER Exposed crewman hit. Dice for which (str. -3).
RADIO Outer aerials destroyed, no communication till fixed.
S. DISCH./LASER R.F. Destroyed.
Others have no effect

Track Hits (D10)

1-6  Track/Wheel Skews 45deg to side hit & travels 1/2 last moves distance.
        hit      Imobalised except multi-wheeled vehicles which 1/2 movement.
7-10 Suspension  1/2 movement. (N.B. no need to penetrate)
Soft Vehicles:
As before but armour is 0. A.P. rounds only have a maximum of 2 internal hits.

Indirect and smallarms fire on vehicles:

If vehicle is within area/radius it will take a hit as normal but may only take a maximum of 4 hits/weapon.

For smallarms get (DM's) to hit target:

small  +1   Tgt. moved 3-6" 6-9" 9-12" 12"+
medium +2    (D.M.)     -1   -2   -3    -4
large  +3
Missfires using vehicle & A.T. weapons (D10):

For vehicle fire:
If using H.E.A.T. or firing auto and roll 1-4
OR firing other and roll 1-2 could misfire.

  Weapon              No effect  Dud/Missfire  Out of Ammo  Jams
Main Gun (H.E.A.T)       1-4          5-8           9        10
Main Gun (Other)         1-6          7-8           9        10
Infantry A.T.            1-5          6-9           -        10
Disposable A.T.          1-5          6-10          -         -
R.C.L.                   1-6          7-9           -        10
Grenade                  1-4          5-10          -         -
Mortar/Artillery shell   1-4          5-10          -         -
Flame thrower            1-4          5-8           -       9-10
DUD/MISSFIRE All but HEAT lost. HEAT (D10): 1-6 lost, 7-10 1/2 Pen./Str.
JAMS Takes one bound to clear. Canister:

Available to 105mm \& 120mm guns. Area effected 4" wide by 8" deep.

Range  4"      8"   12"   16"    20"  24"     DM to hits
Hits  3D6-1  2D6+1  2D6  2D6-1  D6+1  D6       prone  -1
Str.   +1      0    -1    -2     -3   -4
HITS ARE SHARED EQUALLY BETWEEN THOSE IN AREA. MAXIMUM OF 4/FIGURE

Air support

Helicopters may move up to 6' (1.5 km),
OR 3' if turning over 45$^{o}$, going backwards/sideways,
OR hover,
OR land/take off.

Airplanes may one straight-line pass per bound.
Both may fly at normal or evade and at an altitude of Nape-Of-Earth,Low or Medium. Airplanes may also fly at an altitude of High or Ceiling.

Stafing target (D20):                  Accuracy in inches:
   (M.G. & Cannon)                     (If miss strafing, or other attack)    
              Point Tgt. Linear Tgt.   Weapon:             Deviation as:
N.O.E. Normal   5+           3+        M.G./G.L.           Mortar
       Evade    4+           6+        Rockets             Guns Direct
LOW    Normal   9+           5+        Bombs               Short artil.
       Evade   11+          10+        x2 alt. Medium, x3 alt. High x4 alt. Ceiling
Areas:
               Point Tgt. Linear Tgt.   G.L.s (40mm)           8"x4"
M.G. \& Can.     4"x4"      8"x2"       Single rocket          4" diam.
Mini-guns        6"x6"     3"x11"       Napalm (per tank)      5"x13"
Salvo Rockets   11"x11"    6"x18"       Large A.S.M.           5" diam.
19 Rockets*     13"x13"    9"x15"       W.A.A.M./C.B. (750lb) 20"x30"
                                        F.A.E. (500lb)        30" diam.
* 19 Rocket pods using this larger area throw on RP(7) below due to reduced effect. Effect (D6):
  Weapon          Bunker  Dense/Wall  Close  Other  Str.
7.62mm M.G.         -         -         6+     6+     0
Mini-gun/           -         6+        6+     6+    +1
20mm can./.50 cal
750lb (9")          -         5+      1/2D6   D6-1   -2
750lb (5")          6+        D6       D6+1   D6+1   -2
1000lb (11")        -       1/2D6      D6-1    D6    -1
1000lb (6")         5+       D6+1     2D6-1   2D6     0
Napalm              5+     1/2D6-1      D6    D6+1   -1
RP(7) or RP(19)*    6+        6+        5+  1/2D6-1  -1
RP(19)              6+        6+      1/2D6   D6-1    0
G.L. (40mm)         6+        -         6+     5+    -1
Single Rocket       -         -         6+     6+    -2
Large A.S.M.        D6       2D6-1      2D6   2D6-1  +1
W.A.A.M/  (750lb)   6+      1/2D6      D6+1   2D6    +2
Cluster Bombs
F.A.E. (500lb)      D6       2D6      3D6-1   3D6     0
A.T.G.W. treated as ground based equivalent
Laser guided weapons hit as Missile B

F.A.E.- Fuel Air Explosives (CBU-72 e.t.c.)
Cluster bombs 750lb (M-36, CBU-52, CBU-24, e.t.c.)
Larger delivery systems use multiples of above. (CBU-33, CBU-38, SYY-24, SUU-24, e.t.c.)

A.A. fire (D20):

                       Light     Arm'ed Gunship    Large                Prop.
                     Transport   Lt/Manouv'ble   Transport      Jet     Plane
Weapon       Range  Hov. Nm. Ev.  Hov. Nm. Ev.  Hov. Nm. Ev.  Nm. Ev.  Nm. Ev.  Damage
Smallarms     15"    20   -   -     -   -   -    20   -   -    -   -    -   -     A
(group)
7.62mm M.G.   24"    15  17  19    16  19   -    10  13  14    -   -   18  19     A
Single H.M.G. 15"     6  12  16     6  15  18     4   9  11   18  19   14  15     B
              30"    15  17  19    16  19   -    10  13  14    -   -   18  19     B
Multi H.M.G./ 24"     2   7  11     4   9  15     2   2   2   17  18   10  11     B
Gattling      60"     9  13  17    11  17  20     3   5   7   20   -   15  16     B
37mm A.A.      5'    18  19  19    18  19  19    15  18  19    -   -   20   -     C
57mm A.A.      6'    17  18  19    18  18  19    14  17  18   20   -   19  20     C
Larger A.A.   Any    16  17  18    17  18  19    13  16  17   19  20   18  19    2xC
Lt. S.A.M.     6'    16  18  18    19  20  20     7   8   8   19  20   17  18    2xC
Hvy. S.A.M.   Any    17  18  18    17  18  18     8   8   8   16  17    9  10  Explodes
Count each barrel/missile of 37mm+ A.A.
Smallarms    N.O.E.- LOW         DM's: MEDIUM 1/2 chance (Round up) (NOT for S.A.M.s) 
Larger A.A.  N.O.E.- HIGH              HIGH   1/4 chance (Round up) (NOT for S.A.M.s)
Large S.A.M. LOW   - CEILING           + RADAR rating (0 to 3)
Others       N.O.E.- MEDIUM            - ECM rating (if firer using RADAR) (0 to 3)
A.A. effect - Damage (D20):
  Aircraft                  Dam. NO    CREWMAN DAMAGED CRASHES EXPLODES
                                EFFECT   HIT
Lt. Observation              A   1-8     9-15    16     17-20      -
Helicopters                  B    -      1-5      6      7-17    18-20
OH1, OH58, Mi2               C    -       -       -      1-7      8-20
Lt. Transport Hel./Lt. Plane A   1-13   14-17   18-19    20        -
Gazelle, Lynx, UH1. UH60,    B    -      1-12     -     13-17    18-20
Mi8, Mi28, Birddog           C    -       -       -      1-10    11-20
Armoured &                   A   1-17    18      19      20        -
Med. Transport Hels.         B   1-6     7-10   11-14   15-18    19-20
AH64, AH1, Mi24, Puma        C    -       -       -      1-10    11-20
Hvy. Transport Helicopters   A   1-17   18-19    20       -        -
CH47, CH53E, Mi17, Mi6       B   1-13    14     15-17   18-19     20
                             C    -       -      1-2     3-15    16-20
Lt. Jets & Prop. Attack      A   1-19     -      20       -        -
planes A37, A1               B   1-13    14     15-17    18      19-20
                             C   1-7      8      9-10   11-12    13-20
Jet Fighter/Bombers &        A   1-19     -      20       -        -
Large Prop. planes           B   1-13     -     14-16   17-18    19-20
                             C   1-7     8-9    10-13   14-16    17-20
Crewman Hit Dice to see which. Str. +1.
Crashes Helicopter crash-lands on board str. 0. Plane pilots must bailout (D20): Parachute 13+, Ejector seat 8+ to be o.k. If o.k. str. -2.
Damaged Must return to base next bound.

N.B.C. Warfare (Nuclear, Biological & Chemical)

Takes one bound to put on gas-mask/N.B.C. suit.
When Wearing suit count as closed down for sighting and reduce movement by 1/4 (This also applies to crew in N.B.C. suits).

Vehicles using N.B.C. (if capable) must remain closed down, but may operate as normal. If engine K.O. then protection is no longer effective. Vehicles with no N.B.C. capability must have crew in N.B.C. suits (see above).

Roll each bound on table below to see if disabled:

  Target(D20)       Mustard or Chlorine Nerve gas or  C.S. &  Radiation (10 min.
                         type gas       Blood agent  Riot gas   after strike)
Unprotected                 7+               5+          5+           0+
                                                   (10+ in A.F.V.)
In gas mask                10+               7+          9+           1+
In N.B.C. suit &           10+               9+         11+           3+
 wounded
In penetrated vehicle       9+               7+         17+           2+
 with no N.B.C. running
N.B.C. protection           -                -           -           15+
DM +1 per bound after delivery.

Throw once only for C.S./Riot gas, disabled for two turns only.

Areas:

Diliverance System              Area
C.S./Riot gas grenade          5" diam.
Round of blood/blister agent  15" diam.
Bomb/Rocket                   54" diam.
Cylinder                      15"x 60"
Low K.T. nuclear              90" diam.
Low K.T. neutron              48" diam.

Animals

Move at `drivers' pace or handlers rate.If no driver/handler will remain still unless firing or explosions within 15". Then will move at run rate.

Patrol Dogs:

Move with handler or at `dog' rate. May be ordered to attack an observed target or be let loose in an area in which they will attack all but the handler.

Dogs on patrol in an area (which must be fenced) should have a set path and move at 1/2 dog rate. They may also be trained to spot mines, explosives, e.t.c. (F.C.R. 3 or 4).

Riding Animals:

Ridden animals will panic when under fire on a (D10) 1-2, recover on 6-10.

Effect of hits on animals:

Count as per humans
DM's to hit Dogs & small animals -1, Horses & large animals +1
May aim fire at either animal or rider.

Troop Types

Ratings:
Leadership Points (LP)  0(worst) to 4(best).
Ability (Technically) and  0 No training/ability (Civilian)
Field Craft Rating (FCR)   1 Basic training/ability
                           2 Normal training/ability
                           3 Cross training/advanced ability (e.g. Hunter e.t.c.)
                           4 Expert training/marksman 
Troop Quality:                      Moral/Enthusiasm
Experience                   Low/     Medium/          High/
                          Conscripts Regulars Hand-picked/Volunteers
Untrained/Civilians          poor      poor           average

Raw recruits                 poor     average          good
(just trained)
Normal troops               average    good           veteran
(some combat experience)
Experienced troops           good     veteran          elite
(extensive combat experience)
Motivation:

Cross-reference Leadership points with Troop quality to give the initial motivation: (Will change though out game)

              Leadership Points
Troop Quality   0  1  2  3  4
Poor           -2 -2 -1 -1  0
Average        -2 -1 -1  0 +1
Good           -1 -1  0 +1 +1
Veteran        -1  0 +1 +1 +2
Elite           0 +1 +1 +2 +2

Troop Types - conflicts since 1945

These are a sample of troop types for a number of post war conflicts. In each case Ability is given as the minimum, average and maximum normal values. The normal range of Leadershop Points is given and, in games, these should be weighted towards the lower values. It should be relatively straight forward to generate statistics for other conflicts, by comparison and the use of the tables in the previous section. However, the reader is warned against making their favourite unit into 4-4-Elite-4 super humans as this totally spoils any ballance in the game.

INDO-CHINA ('45/6-'61/2)

       UNIT                   Ability FCR Quality  LP Notes
French Special Forces          3 4 4   4   Elite  3-4 Commando, Ponchardier,
                                                       S.A.S, G.C.M.A.
Foreign Legion, Paras          2 3 4   3   Elite  2-4
Colonial & other good units    2 2 3   2   Vet.   1-3 Algerian,Moroccan,T'ai
Other French troops            1 2 3   2   Good   0-2 (conscripts)
US Mercenaries                 2 3 4   4   Elite  1-4 Flyers till '54,
                                                       then ground troops.
US advisers (Green Berets,CIA) 3 4 4   4   Elite  2-4 From '57
Vietnamese Paras & Elite units 1 2 3   2   Vet.   0-3
Vietnamese Regulars            0 2 3   1   Aver.  0-1
Local Militia                  0 1 2   1   Aver.   0
French trained indig. troops   0 1 2   3   Good   0-1
Anticommunist Sects/Binh Xuyen 0 1 2   2   Good   0-1 Active mainly '54-6
Vietminh Mainforce             1 2 3   3   Elite  0-3 (PLA troops)
Vietminh Guerillas             0 1 2   3   Vet.   0-2 inc Pathet Lao from'57
Local Vietminh Guerillas       0 1 1   2   Aver.  0-1 New recruites, PLA milita
VIETNAM ('62/3-'75/6)
       UNIT                    Ability FCR Quality    LP Notes

U.S. Special Forces,LURPs, etc  3 4 4   4   Elite    2-4 inc. Australian SAS 
     Good regulars              2 3 4   3 Vet./Elite 1-3
     Other American units       1 2 3   2   Elite    0-2 most US units
N.Z. \& Australian troops       3 4 4   3   Elite    2-4
Republic of Korea (R.O.K.)      1 2 3   2   Vet.     0-2
ARVN Rangers & elite units      1 2 3   2   Good     0-2
ARVN Regulars & paratroopers    1 2 3   1   Aver.    0-1
Popular Forces                  1 2 3   1   Aver.    0-1
Montagnards, Nug & other C.I.A. 1 2 3   3   Good     0-1
 indigenous employees             
NVA Sappers                     2 3 4   4   Elite    2-4
NVA regular units               1 3 4   3 Vet./Elite 1-3
VC Cadre                        1 2 3   4   Elite    1-3
Local VC, Pathet Lao, Khmer     0 1 2   2   Aver.    0-1 New recruits etc
Ordinary VC, Khmers, Pathet Lao 0 1 2   3   Vet.     0-2
RHODESIA ('64-'79/80)
       UNIT                 Ability FCR Quality  LP Notes
Rhodesian Special Forces     3 4 4   4   Elite  3-4 Selous & Grey Scouts,
                                                       S.A.S.
Higher Quality Regulars      2 3 4   3   Elite  2-4 R.L.I. e.t.c.
Other Rhodesian Regulars     2 3 4   3   Vet.   1-3
Ranchers                     2 3 4   3   Good   0-2
South African Para-Military  1 2 3   2   Vet.   0-3 Until 1975
Cadre Guerillas              1 3 3   4   Elite  0-3
Patriotic Front              1 2 3   3   Vet.   0-2 Z.A.N.U.- Mozambique
(Z.A.N.U., A.N.C., Z.A.P.U.)                        Z.A.P.U.- Zambia
Local Guerillas, Majubis     0 1 1   2   Aver.  0-1
Mozambique & Zambian Forces  1 2 3   2   Good   0-3
Cuban Advisers               3 4 4   3   Elite  2-4 Some Soviet (Higher ratings)
AFGHANISTAN ('79-'89)
       UNIT               Ability FCR Quality  LP Notes
U.S.S.R. Special Forces    3 4 4   4   Elite  3-4 M.V.D.& K.G.B.(Spetsnaz).
V.D.V. Airborne            3 3 4   3   Elite  1-4
K.G.B. Boarder Guards      2 3 4   3   Elite  1-3
Turkestan/Central Asian    1 2 3   2   Good   0-3 1979 & early 1980 only.
   Reservists 
Conscripts                 2 2 3   3   Vet.   1-3 1980 onwards
D.R.A. Airborne & Commando 2 3 4   3   Elite  1-3 Airborne mutinied 1980
D.R.A. Regulars            1 2 3   2   Good   0-2
D.R.A. Conscripts (79/80)  0 1 2   1   Aver.  0-1
D.R.A. Conscripts (81+)    0 1 2   1   Good   0-2
Sarnodoy (Militia)         0 1 2   1   Aver.   0  Policing Militia
Police \& KHAD (Para-mil.) 1 2 3   2   Good   0-1 Internal struggle between two.
Tribal militia             0 1 2   1   Good   0-1 Bought-off guerillas
Cuban/E. German/Bulgarian  3 3 4   4   Elite  2-4 Also Ethiopian/S. Yemen.
Vietnamese/Syrian Advisers                              All gone by 1980
Main core guerillas        2 2 3   3   Vet.   1-3
Regular guerillas          1 2 3   2   Good   0-2
Tribesmen/guerillas        0 1 2   1   Aver.  0-1 Possibly 5% of total population
FALKLANDS (1982)
       UNIT                Ability FCR  Quality    LP Notes
SAS, SBS, RM Arctic Warfare 3 4 4   4    Elite    3-4
RM Commandos, Paras         3 3 4  3/4 Vet./Elite 2-4
Other British forces        2 3 4   3    Vet.     2-4 Gurkha, Scots & Welsh 
                                                      guards, Blues & Royals.
Teniente \& Marine Commando 3 3 4   4    Elite    2-4
Regular troops and Marines  2 3 4   3    Good     1-3 Most of troops
Conscripted Troops          1 2 3   2    Aver.    0-2 25% of main force
US mercenaries (?)          3 3 4   4  Vet./Elite 3-4 not confirmed & unlikely.
LEBANON ('82-'86)
       UNIT              Ability FCR Quality  LP Notes
Israeli Paras &           3 4 4   4   Elite  3-4 Sayeret Golanie,
 Special Forces                                    Kommando Yami.
Israeli Regulars          2 3 4   3   Elite  1-4
Israeli Conscripts        1 2 3   2   Vet.   0-3
Syrian Commandos          3 3 4   4   Elite  2-4
Syrian Regulars           2 3 3   2   Vet.   0-3
Lebanese Army (Mixed)     1 2 3   3   Good   0-2
Christian Militia &       0 2 3   2   Vet.   0-2 inc. Shi'ite Muslims,
 South Lebanese Army (SLA)                            Phalangists.
National Guard (SLA)      0 1 2   1   Aver.  0-1 inc. Al-Tanzim.
Druze & Mainforce PLO     1 2 3   3   Vet.   0-3 Judullah, Amal, I.U.M.
Lenanese Arab Army &      0 2 3   2   Good   0-2 Al Amal al Islam, Hezbollah
P.L.O. Factions.                                 (IRM), October 24th Movement.
Normal UNIFIL Troops      3 3 4   3   Vet.   1-4 U.S./Italian Marines,
                                                  Nigerian, U.K. Forces.
Elite UNIFIL Troops       3 4 4   4   Elite  2-4 French Paras, Irish,Sweedish.
GRENADA (1983)
       UNIT               Ability FCR  Quality    LP Notes
US Special Forces          3 4 4   4    Elite   3-4 SEALs, Delta forces
US Rangers/Pathfinders     3 3 4   3    Elite   2-4 
USMC                       2 3 4   3 Vet./Elite 1-3 22nd MAU
US Airborne                2 3 4   3    Vet.    1-3
Grenadan PRA               1 2 3   2    Good    0-3
Grenadan PRM (militia)     0 1 2   1    Aver.   0-2
Cuban Construction Workers 1 2 3   2    Vet.    1-3
Cuban Army advisers        2 3 4   3    Elite   2-4
Soviet Spetsnaz            3 4 4   4    Elite   3-4
Caribbean PKF              1 2 3   2    Good    1-3 Barbados Defence Force, Jamaican Reg.&
(armed forces)                                   Police of: Barbados, Do minica, StVincent
Caribbean PKF (police)     0 1 2   2    Good    1-3 St Lucia, Antiga, St Kit
ts-Nevis
GULF WAR ('90-'91)
       UNIT             Ability FCR  Quality    LP Notes
Allied Special Forces    3 4 4   4    Elite    3-4 U.S.: Spike Det., SFG,
                                                   SEALs, U.K.: SAS & SBS
French Foreign Legion    3 3 4  3/4 Vet./Elite 2-4
USMC                     2 3 4   3  Vet./Elite 2-4
82nd & 101st Airborne    2 3 4   3    Vet.     2-4
French 4th Dragoon Reg.  2 3 3   3  Good/Vet.  1-4
Other U.S., U.K.         2 3 4   3    Vet.     2-4
& French forces.
Kuwaiti Regulars         1 2 3   2    Vet.     1-3 Army before invasion, 15th & 
                                                   35th Brigades in Desert Storm.
Kuwaiti Conscripts       0 1 2   1  Good/Vet.  0-2 Infantry Brigades in Desert Storm.
Saudi Army Natioal Guard 2 3 3   3    Vet.     2-3
Royal Saudi Army         1 2 3   2  Good/Vet.  1-3
Egyptian 1st Ranger Reg. 2 3 3   3  Good/Vet.  2-4
Egyptian Regulars        2 2 3   2    Good     1-3 3rd Mech. & 4th Arm Div.s.
Syrian Regulars          2 2 3   3    Good     1-3 9th Tank Div.
Oman Regulars            2 3 4  3/4   Vet      2-4 1 Mech Battalion.
Bahrain, Niger           1 2 3   2   Good/Vet. 0-3 Bahrain 1 Inf. Battalion,
& Qutar Forces                                     Niger 1 Inf. company, 
                                                   Qutar 1 Mech. Battalion.
Moroccan 6th Mech.       1 2 2   2    Good     0-3

Iraqi Forces: These are pre-invasion ratings & should belowered after allied bombing
8th Republican Guard     2 3 3   3    Vet.     2-3 Special forces.
Other Republican Guard   2 2 3   2    Vet.     2-3 inc. 10th Armd. Div.
Regular Infantry         1 2 2   2    Good     0-3
Other Regular Units      1 2 3  2/3 Good/Vet.  1-3
Conscripted Infantry     0 1 2   1    Aver.    0-2

Weapons Tables

Below is a long, but not exhaustive, list of smallarms used in the period of these rules. The tables were generated by statistics gathered in the '80s and so, especially for more modern weapons, be not totally correct. It sould be easy to amend these to your own tastes and include any missing weapons. Again, as with troop type above, I would guard against creating super guns.

Pistols & Revolvers

Revolvers
(A): Bodeo M1889(It), Meiji T26(Ja), Webly & Scott(UK), Colt police(US), S & W 1st MOD(US).
(B): Webly No1(UK), Enfield Mk. II(UK).
(D): S & W Magnum(US).

Pistols:
(A): Browning 9mm/HP(Be), Type 51/54(Ch), CZ 1950/52(Cz), CZ 27(Cz), Beretta M1934/35(It), Beretta M81/84(It), Type 94(Ja), Lahti L35/40(Fn), MAB Mod.D(Fr), PM 9mm Markarov(Ru), Llama(Sp), Schwarzlose M1908(WG), Wather PPK/PP(WG), Luger P08(WG), M57/70(Yu).
(B): Hafdasa(Ar), MR 43(Fr), Colt M1911A1(US).
(C): Beretta 92S(It), MAB PA15(Fr), Radom VIS35(Po), TT30/33(Ru), STAR(Sp), Astra 400(Sp), SIS P210/M49(Sz), Walther P38(WG), M9(US).br> (D): Ruger GS32N(US).

Wpn  2" 4"  8" 10" Str
(A)  6+ 9+ 11+ 12+ -3
(B)  6+ 9+ 11+ 12+ -2
(C)  6+ 8+ 10+ 12+ -3
(D)  6+ 8+ 10+ 12+ -2

Sub-Machine Guns

(A): SIG MP310(Sz)
(B): Type 43.50(Ch), PPD 34/38(Ru), PPSh 41/43(Ru), M49/57(Yu).
(C): Beretta M38A(It)
(D): Owen(As), F1(As), Type 54(Ch), ZK383(Cz), M24/26(Cz), Suomi M31(Fn), UZI(Is), Ber. M12(It), Ber. M38/49(It), MOD 65(Ja), HM-3(Mex), FMBP M976(Po), BXP(SA), Z62/70(Sp), Lanchester(UK).
(D) but auto fire only: Hoven M49(De), MAT 49(Fr), C.Gustaf M45(Sz).
(E): M2(Be), VZ 23-26(Cz), Sten Mk.6(UK).
(E) but auto fire only: LF57(It), FMBP M48(Po).
(F): PA3-DM(Ar), TZ 45(It), L2 Sterling C1(UK), S100(Po), M56(Yu).
(F) but auto fire only: MP40(WG).
(G): Sten(UK), Masden M50 (Mk.I auto fire only)(De), MP 26 II(WG).
(H): VZ61 Scorpion(Cz), WZ63(Po), H & K VP70(WG).
(H) but auto fire only: M93R(It)
(I): SANNA 77(SA).
(J): MAC 10/11(US)
(K): Thompson(US).
(L): MB 50(Br).
(L) but auto fire only: M3(US).
(M): Reising M50(US).
Wpn   2"    4"    8"    10"     15"   20"  Str
(A) -2/6+ -4/7+ -4/9+ -6/10+  -7/11+ -/12+ -3
(B) -3/6+ -4/7+ -5/9+ -6/10+  -7/11+ -/12+ -3
(C) -4/6+ -5/7+ -6/9+ -7/10+  -8/11+ -/12+ -3
(D) -4/6+ -5/8+ -6/9+ -7/10+  -8/11+ -/12+ -3
(E) -4/6+ -5/8+ -6/9+ -7/10+  -9/11+ -/12+ -3
(F) -5/6+ -6/8+ -6/9+ -8/10+  -9/11+ -/12+ -3
(G) -6/6+ -6/7+ -7/9+ -8/10+ -10/11+ -/12+ -3
(H) -6/6+ -6/8+ -7/9+ -9/11+ -10/12+  -    -3
(I)   6+    8+    9+   11+     12+    -    -3
(J) -4/6+ -5/8+ -6/9+ -7/11+  -8/12+  -   -2/-3
(K) -4/6+ -5/8+ -6/9+ -7/10+  -8/11+ -/12+ -2
(L) -5/6+ -6/8+ -6/9+ -8/10+  -9/11+ -/12+ -2
(M) -6/6+ -6/8+ -7/9+ -8/10+ -10/11+ -/12+ -2

Shotgun type weapons

  Weapon           Pt. Blank 2" 4" 8" 10" 15"
Auto Shotgun    Str    0      0 -1 -2 -3  -4
                Hit   -5     -5 -5 -7 -8 -10
Break-action    Str    0     -1 -2 -3 -4   -
Shotgun         Hit   -6     -6 -7 -8 -8   -
Flechette round Str   +1      0 -1 -2 -3   -
(from G.L.)     Hit   -5     -5 -6 -8 -9   -
Sawn-off        Str   +1     -1 -4  -  -   -
Shotgun         Hit   -4     -4 -8  -  -   -

Single-Shot Carbines

(A): M-C Carb. M91(It), Mini 14(US).
(B): M1 Carb(US).
Wpn 2" 4" 8" 10" 15" 20" 25" 30" Str
(A) 6+ 6+ 7+  8+  9+ 10+ 11+ 11+ -1
(B) 6+ 7+ 7+  8+  9+ 10+ 11+ 12+ -1

Self-Loading Carbines

(A): Type 53(Ch), VZ52(Cz), Hakim(Eg), MAS 36CR39(Fr), M-C Carb. M38(It), Meiji 38(Ja). S.K.S.(Ru), Gewehr 41(WG). >pre> Wpn 2" 4" 8" 10" 15" 20" 25" 30" 40" Str (A) 6+ 7+ 7+ 8+ 8+ 9+ 10+ 11+ 12+ -1

Rifles (Bolt action, Single-shot & Self-Loading)

(A): SMLE No5(UK), l1A1(UK), C1(UK).
(B): Mosin-Nagant M44(Ru), Springfield M1903(US), M1 Garand(US).
(C): Parker-Hale(As), S5G 69(Au), FN(Be), Fr-F1(Fr), Ross Rifle II(UK), Pattern 1913/14(UK), Mauser SP66(WG).
(D): SAFN M49(Be), Modele 1886(Fr), MAS 36(Fr), MAS 49/56(Fr), Type 99(Ja), Lee Enfield IV(UK), SMLE No4(UK), Mauser 98K(WG).
(E): Draganov SVD(Ru), L42A1(UK), M21(US), M24(US), M40(US), H+K PSG-1(WG).
Wpn 2" 4" 8" 10" 15" 20" 25" 30" 40" 60" 70" Str
(A) 6+ 6+ 7+  7+  8+  8+  9+ 10+ 11+  -   -   0
(B) 6+ 7+ 7+  8+  8+  9+  9+ 10+ 11+  -   -   0
(C) 4+ 5+ 5+  5+  6+  6+  7+  7+  9+ 11+  -   0 (Snipers rifles)
(D) 5+ 6+ 6+  7+  7+  8+  9+ 10+ 11+ 12+  -   0
(E) 4+ 4+ 5+  5+  5+  6+  6+  7+  9+ 10+ 12+  0 (Snipers rifles)

Automatic-Rifles

(A): Colt Commando CAR 15(US), M16 SMG(US) AKR(Ru).
(B): AUG(Au), FN FNC(Be), Type 68(Ch), VZ58(Cz), Valmet(Fn), FAMAS(Fr), Galil SAR(Is), Berretta 70(It), AK 74/AKSD(Ru), R4/5(SA), T65(Tw), AR 15/M 16(US), H & K 33(WG).
(C): Type 56(Ch), MPiKMS 72(Gr), AMD 63/65(Hu), PMK DGM 60(Po), AK 47/AKA/AKM/AKMS(Ru), MP44(WG).
(D): FG 42(WG).
(E): Type 64(Ja), CETME M58C(Sp), G3(WG).
(F): Galil ARM(Is), Bullpup/SA-80(UK).
(G): G11(WG).
(H): BM59(It), SG501-4(Sz), M 14(US).
(I): FN FAL(Be), F1(SA).
Wpn   2"    4"    8"    10"   15"   20"    25"     30"     40"   60" Str
(A) -5/6+ -6/7+ -6/7+ -6/8+ -7/9+ -8/10+ -9/11+   -/12+    -     -    -1
(B) -5/6+ -6/7+ -6/7+ -6/8+ -6/8+  -7/9+ -8/10+  -9/11+   -/12+  -    -1
(C) -6/6+ -6/7+ -6/7+ -6/8+ -7/8+  -8/9+ -9/10+ -10/11+   -/12+  -    -1
(D) -6/6+ -6/7+ -7/7+ -7/8+ -8/8+  -8/9+ -9/10+ -10/11+   -/12+  -    -1
(E) -6/6+ -6/7+ -6/7+ -6/8+ -7/8+  -8/9+ -9/10+ -10/11+   -/12+  -     0
(F) -5/6+ -5/6+ -6/7+ -6/7+ -6/8+  -7/8+  -8/9+  -8/11+  -9/12+ -/12+ -1
(G) -5/6+ -5/6+ -5/7+ -6/7+ -6/8+  -6/8+  -7/9+  -8/11+  -8/12+ -/12+  0
(H) -5/6+ -5/6+ -6/7+ -6/7+ -6/8+  -7/8+  -8/9+  -8/11+  -9/12+ -/12+  0
(I) -5/6+ -5/6+ -6/7+ -6/7+ -6/8+  -7/8+  -8/9+  -9/11+ -10/12+ -/12+  0

Light-Machine Guns

(A): RPD(Ru).
(B): Valmet M62(Fn).
(C): FN MIMIMI(Be).
(C) (but Crew is 1): M 249E1(US).
(D): I.S.W./SA-80(UK)
(E): 1MGK(Gr), RPK(Ru).
(F): M63 Stonner(US), H & K 21(WG).
(G): L2A1(UK), FN FAL-HB(Be), BM59 ITAL(It), L4A1(UK), M14A1(US).
(H): B.A.R.(US)
(I): M51(Sz), MG42(WG), MG 1-3(WG).
(I) (but Crew is 1): SIG 710-2(Sz).
(J): FN MAG(Be), L7A2(UK).
(K): VZ26(Cz).
(L): Type 67(Ch), Mod.59(Cz), AA52(Fr), Model 62(Fr), RP46(Ru), PK(Ru), M60(US).
(L) (but Crew is 1): DP(Ru), DPM(Ru), M60E(Ru).
(M): M 1919A4(US).
Size: Small. All Str. 0 except (E) Str. -1. Crew 1 except (c) Crew 2
Wpn. 2"    4"    8"    10"   15"   20"   25     30"    40"   60"
A  -4    -5    -5    -5    -6    -7    -7     -8     -8      -  
B  -3    -3    -4    -4    -5    -6    -7     -7     -7      -  
C  -2    -3    -3    -4    -4    -5    -6     -7     -7      -  
D  -2/6+ -3/6+ -3/7+ -4/7+ -4/8+ -5/8+ -6/9+  -7/11+ -7/12+ -/12+
E  -4/6+ -5/7+ -5/7+ -5/8+ -6/8+ -7/9+ -7/10+ -8/11+ -8/12+ -/12+
F  -4/6+ -5/7+ -5/7+ -5/8+ -6/8+ -7/9+ -7/10+ -8/11+ -8/12+ -/12+
G  -5/6+ -5/7+ -6/7+ -6/8+ -6/8+ -7/9+ -7/10+ -8/11+ -8/12+ -/12+
H  -5/6+ -6/7+ -6/7+ -6/8+ -6/8+ -7/9+ -8/10+ -8/11+ -9/12+ -/12+

Size: Large. All Str. 0. Crew 2 except (K) & (M) Crew 1
Wpn. 2"    8"    10"   15"   20"   25     30"    40"    60"    70"
I  -2    -3    -3    -4    -4    -4     -5     -5     -6     -7   
J  -4    -4    -5    -5    -5    -6     -6     -7     -7     -8   
K  -4/6+ -5/7+ -5/7+ -5/8+ -6/8+ -6/9+  -7/10+ -7/10+ -7/11+ -7/12
L  -4    -5    -5    -5    -6    -6     -7     -7     -7     -8  
M  -6    -6    -7    -7    -7    -7     -7     -8     -8     -9 

Sustained-Fire Machine Guns

(A): M51(Sz),SIG 701-2(Sz), MG 42(WG), MG 1-3(WG).
(B): FN MAG(Be), L7A2(UK).
(C): RP 46(Ru).
(D): SGM(Ru), Vickers(UK).
(E): Type 67(Ch), Mod. 59(Cz), AA52(Fr), Model 62(Ja), PK(Ru), M60(US).
(F): M 1919A4(US).
Wpn 4" 10" 25" 40" 60" 70" 80" Str Crew
(A) -1 -1  -2  -2  -3  -3  -5   0   3
(B) -2 -3  -3  -3  -4  -5  -7   0   3
(C) -3 -3  -3  -4  -4  -5  -7   0   3
(D) -4 -4  -4  -5  -5  -6  -7   0   3
(E) -4 -4  -5  -5  -5  -6  -7   0   3
(F) -6 -6  -6  -7  -7  -7  -8   0   2

Heavy-Machine Guns

(A): KPV 14.5mm(Ru)
(B): Degtyarev 12.7mm(Ru), M2 12.7mm(US)
All: Crew 3.
Wpn 40" 60" 70" 80" Str
(A) -5  -6  -7  -7  +1
(B) -4  -5  -6  -7  +1

Silenced Weapons

Pistols
(A): Type 64sil(Ch).
S.M.G.s
(B): L34A1(UK), M11(US), MP5 SD(WG).
(C): Type 64sil(Ch).
Wpn   2"    4"    8"     10"    15" Str
(A)    6+   10+    12+    -     -    -4
(B) -1/6+ -3/9+ -4/10+ -5/11+ -6/12+ -3
(C) -3/6+ -5/9+ -6/10+ -7/11+ -8/12+ -3

``Cold Steal" (Silent weapons)

  Weapon       2" 4" 8" 10" 15" 20" 25" Str
Hunting bow    7+ 7+ 8+  8+ 10+ 12+ 12+ -2
Crossbow       4+ 5+ 5+  6+  6+  7+  9+ -1
Throwing knife 7+ -  -   -   -   -   -  -4

Anti-Tank-Guided-Weapons

N.B. Takes one bound to set up.
 MISSILE A          Range     Back- Remote Optional
                 min max  km  flash          Pen.
Mathogo     (Ar) 36" 82"  2.1 no    no        7
SS-10       (Fr) 30" 74"  1.6 no    yes       7
SS-11       (Fr) 36" 96"  3.0 no    yes      10
Entac       (Fr) 34" 80"  2.0 no    yes       9
Cobra       (WG) 34" 74"  1.6 no    yes       8
Cobra 2000  (WG) 34" 80"  2.0 no    yes       8
Mamba       (WG) 30" 80"  2.0 yes   yes       8
Mosquito    (It) 32" 86"  2.3 no    yes       8
KAM-D3      (Ja) 32" 78"  1.8 no    yes       7
Bantam      (Sw) 30" 80"  2.0 no    yes       8
Kun Wu      (Ti) 36" 96"  3.0 no    yes       8
AT1 Snapper (Ru) 21" 86"  2.3 no    yes       6
AT2 Swatter (Ru) 36" 90"  2.5 no    yes       8
AT3 Sagger  (Ru) 32" 96"  3.0 no    yes       7
Malkara     (UK) 30" 108" 4.0 yes   yes      11
Vigilant    (UK) 25" 69"  1.6 no    yes       7
Shillelagh  (US) 36" 96"  3.0 no    no       12

 MISSILE B            Range     Back- Remote Optional
                   min max  km  flash          Pen.
Harpoon       (Fr) 34"  96" 3.0 no    no       10
ADATS        (Int) 25" 120" 6.0 yes   no       10
HOT          (Int) 12" 108" 4.0 no    no       12
Milan        (Int)  5"  80" 2.0 no    no        8
Sparieo       (It) 12"  96" 3.0 yes   no       10
KAM-9         (Ja) 12" 108" 4.0 yes   no       10
Chyu-Mat      (Ja) 12" 108" 4.0 yes   no       13
Bill*         (Sw) 20"  80" 2.0 yes   no        7
AT2 Swatter B (Ru) 36" 102" 3.5 no    no        9
AT3 Sagger B  (Ru) 32"  96" 3.0 no    no        8
AT4 Spigot    (Ru) 15"  90" 2.5 yes   no        8
AT5 Spandrel  (Ru) 15"  96" 3.0 yes   no        8
AT6 Spiral    (Ru) 60" 114" 5.0 yes   no       12
AT6 Spiral B  (Ru) 60" 120" 6.0 yes   Laser    12
Swingfire     (UK) 20" 108" 4.0 no    yes      10
TOW           (US) 11" 104" 3.8 yes   no       10
TOW Imp.      (US) 11" 104" 3.8 yes   no       12
TOW 3         (US) 11" 104" 3.8 yes   no       13
TOW 3         (US) 11" 104" 3.8 yes   no       14
Dragon        (US) 10"  62" 1.1 yes   no        8
Hellfire      (US) 36" 120" 6.0 yes   Laser    16
* If hits, will attack top armour on (D10) 5+.

If using Laser Designator with observer & weapon is off table e.t.c. basic (D10) 4+ to hit.

Mortars

Mortar Ranges (WWII):         Min. Max. km
Hand mortar                     4" 24"   -
2"(U.K.),50mm(Gr.),45mm(It.)   12" 36"   -
50mm(Ru.),Type89 50mm(Ja.)     15" 48"   -
80mm G42(Gr.)                  15" 62"  1.1
60mm(U.S. \& Fr.), 50mm(Ja.)   15" 90"  1.8
3"(U.K.), 80mm(Gr.)            15" 90"  2.5
Type97/99 81mm(Ja.)
81mm(U.S. \& Fr.), 82mm(Ru.)   20" 96"  3.1
81mm(It.), Type94/97 90mm(Ja.) 24" 108" 4.0
120mm(Ru.), 120mm G42(Gr.)     36" 120" 6.0
Modern:                  Min. Max. km
Hand mortar                4"  24"  -
50-52mm                   15"  45"  -
60mm                      15"  96"  3
81mm(U.S./Is.), 82mm(Ru.) 20"  96"  3
81mm(Fr.), 4.2"(U.K.)     15" 108"  4
81mm(U.K.)                24" 114"  5
107mm(U.S.)               36" 114"  5
120mm                     36" 120"  6
160mm                     50"  -    8
240mm                     70"  -   10